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34 CFR § 106.41 – Athletics: Federal Regulations of the Office of the Department of Education

36 U.S. Code § 220501, the Ted Stevens Olympic and Amateur Sports Act.

Aspen Institute, Sport and Society, “40+ influential sport bodies endorsed multisport play in response to the trend toward early sport specialization. NCAA leaders wrote a column for the Aspen Institute encouraging multisport play…” Available at:

Auchus, Richard, “Endocrinology and Women’s Sports: The Diagnosis Matters,” Law and Contemporary Problems, Duke University School of Law, Vol. 80, No. 4, Sex in Sport (2017).

Australia Human Rights Commission.  “Guidelines for the inclusion of transgender and gender diverse people in sport.”, June, 2019.

Bilek, Jennifer, “Who Are the Rich, White Men Institutionalizing Gender Ideology?” The Federalist, February 20, 2018.

Blade, Linda, “Unsporting: How Trans Activism and Science Denial are Destroying Sport,” May 2021.

Boys vs. Women: Male High School Athletes vs. Female Olympians

Brook, Emily, et. al., “Low energy availability, menstrual dysfunction, and impaired bone health: A survey of elite para athletes,” Scand J Med Sci Sports, May 2019.

Brown, Greg, et. al., “Sex-based differences in track running distances of 100, 200, 400, 800, and 1500m in the 8 and under and 9–10-year-old age groups,” European Journal of Sport Science, February 5, 2024.

Brown, Gregory and Mary O’Connor, “Fatal Flaws In the IOC Sponsored Research Study on Transgender Athletes,” Reality’s Last Stand,” May 8, 2024.

Cantor, David., et. al., “Report on the AAU Campus Climate Survey on Sexual Assault and Misconduct,” Association of American Universities, 2019. “According to a recent survey of nearly 182,000 students, 26% of female college and graduate students report nonconsensual sexual contact by physical force or an inability to consent since enrolling in the school.”

Cass, Hilary, “The Cass Review: Independent Review of Gender Identity Services for Children and Young People: Final Report and Recommendations to NHS England,” April 2024.

Catley, Mark J. and Tomkinson, Grant R., “Normative health-related fitness values for children: analysis of 85,347 test results on 9–17-year-old Australians since 1985,” British Journal of Sports Medicine, Vol. 47, Issue 2 (January 2013).

Champion Women, “Discrimination Against Women in College Sports Is Getting Worse,” June 23, 2020.

Clark RV, Wald JA, Swerdloff RS, Wang C, Wu FCW, Bowers LD, Matsumoto AM 2019 Large divergence in testosterone concentrations between men and women: Frame of reference for elite athletes in sex- specific competition in sports, a narrative review. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 90:15-22.

“Classification System for Paralympic Track and Field “Open for Abuse,” The Guardian, March, 2017.

Coleman, D.L., “Foreword,” Law and Contemporary Problems, Duke University School of Law, Vol. 80, No. 4, Sex in Sport (2017), pp. 1-5.

Coleman, D.L. “Sex, Sport, and Why Track and Field’s New Rules on Intersex Athletes Are Essential.” The New York Times, April 30, 2018.

Coleman, D.L, Joyner, M.J. and Lopiano, D.A. “Re-Affirming the Value of the Sports Exception to Title IX’s General Non-Discrimination Rule.” Duke Journal of Gender Law & Policy, March, 2020.

Coleman, D.L., “Sex in Sport,” Duke University School of Law, Vol. 80, No. 4, Sex in Sport (2017), pp. 63-126.

Dansky, Kara, “The Abolition of Sex: How the “Transgender” Agenda Harms Women and Girls,” November 2021.

Dawkins, Sarah, “Transgender athletes: Majority of elite female athletes support categorisation by biological sex, new research finds,” BBC Sport, April 17, 2024.

Devine, Cathy, “Female Olympians’ voices: Female sports categories and the International Olympic Committee Transgender Guidelines,” International Review for the Sociology of Sport, June 2021.

Devine, Cathy, et al., “When Ideology Trumps Science: A response to the Canadian Centre for Ethics in Sport’s Review on Transwomen Athletes in the Female Category,” published on, November 29, 2022.

Eiberg S, Hasselstrom H, Grønfeldt V, et al., “Maximum oxygen uptake and objectively measured physical activity in Danish children 6–7 years of age: the Copenhagen school child intervention study,” Br J Sports Med. 2005;39(10):725–30, cited in Hilton EN, Lundberg TR. Transgender Women in The Female Category of Sport: Perspectives on testosterone suppression and performance advantage. Sports Medicine. 2021;51: (PMID 33289906 and doi: 10.1007/s40279-020-01389-3).

Elsas, L. J. et. al., “Gender verification of female athletes,” Genet Med, 2000 Jul-Aug;2(4):249-54.

Environmental Progress, “The WPATH Files: Pseudoscientific Surgical and Hormonal Experiments on Children, Adolescents, and Vulnerable Adults,” March 4, 2024.

Fair Play for Women, “New Report: How Trans Inclusion in Sport Is Harming Girls and Women,” January 2024.

“FBI Crime in the United States 2018.”

Federal Register, Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Receiving Federal Financial Assistance: Sex-Related Eligibility Criteria for Male and Female Athletic Teams, April 13, 2023.

Frank Falkner et. al., Human Growth, “Boys demonstrate, on the average, greater strength than girls at all ages. Sex differences throughout childhood are consistent, although small,” 1978, P. 286.

Gilligan, Andrew, The Sunday Times, “Unisex Changing Rooms Put Women in Danger,” September 2, 2018.

Giordano, Jerry, “The Boy-Girl Difference in Swimming Records,” Ricochet, June 25, 2022.

Handelsman DJ, Hirschberg AL, Bermon S. Circulating Testosterone as the Hormonal Basis of Sex Differences in Athletic Performance. Endocr Rev. 2018;39(5):803-29. Epub 2018/07/17.

Harper, J., O’Donnell, E., Sorouri Khorashad, B., et al.  “How does hormone transition in transgender women change body composition, muscle strength and haemoglobin?  Systematic review with a focus on the implications for sport participation.”  British Journal of Sports Medicine, March 1, 2021.

Hilton, Emma, “Dr. Emma Hilton reviews the science supporting the IOC decision to let male-born transgender athletes into female competition”., July 14, 2019.   

Hilton, Emma and Lundberg, Tommy, “Transgender Women in The Female Category of Sport: Perspectives on testosterone suppression and performance advantage.” Sports Medicine. 2021;51: (PMID 33289906 and doi: 10.1007/s40279-020-01389-3).

Hoge, C., Pirruccio, K. et al., (2021)  “Rising Trends in Wrestling-associated Injuries in Females Presenting to US Emergency Departments.” Western J. of Emergency Medicine:  Integrating Emergency Care with Population Health.  Vol. 22, Issue 2.

Hooven, Carole, “The Problem With Saying ‘Sex Assigned at Birth,'” New York Times, April 3, 2024.

Hooven, Carole, T: The Story of Testosterone, the Hormone That Dominates and Divides Us. New York: Henry Holt, 2021.

Jacoby, Kenny; Berkowitz, Steve; and Doug Caruso, USA Today, “Title IX: Falling Short at 50, Inside the numbers: Searchable data offers glimpse into how colleges short-change women’s sports” March, 2022.

Joyce, Helen, “Trans: When Ideology Meets Reality,” September, 2021.

Lavietes, Matt, “Most Americans oppose including trans athletes in sports, poll finds,” NBC News, June 12, 2023.

Longman, Jere, “New Study Bolsters Idea of Athletic Differences Between Men and Trans Women,” New York Times, April 23, 2024.

Lopiano, Donna, “Why the NCAA’s Transgender Eligibility Policy is Outdated – And How It Can Be Fixed,”, January 5, 2022.

Lopiano, Donna and Mariah Burton Nelson, “A Fair and Inclusive Solution for Transgender Women in Sports,”, July 2022.

Nolan, Ian T.; Kuhner, Christopher J.; and Geolani W. Dy, “Demographic and Temporal Trends in Transgender Identities and Gender Affirming Surgery,” Translational Andrology and Urology, June 2019, pp. 184-190.

“Paralympics in Crisis As International and Australian Athletes Game the System,” ABC, April 2023.

O’Connor, M.I., “Equity360: Gender, Race, and Ethnicity: Sex and Fairness in Sports,” Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2023 May 4.

Pike, J, Hilton, E. and L. Howe.  “Male and Female Athletic Performance:  Worlds Apart.”, December 11, 2021.

Post Wire Report, “Cycling bosses reviewing rules for transgender athletes after Austin Killips wins women’s race,” New York Post, May 4, 2023.

Schiappa, E.“The Transgender Exigency:  Defining Sex and Gender in the 21st Century”.  Routledge, December 8, 2021.   

Senefeld, J.W., Hunter, S.K., Coleman, D.L. and Joyner, M.J.“Transgender Swimmer in College, January 1, 2022.  Note:  This article is a preprint and has not been certified by peer review. It reports new medical research that has yet to be evaluated and so should not be used to guide clinical practice.

“The Role of Testosterone in Athletic Performance.”  Experts statement by 41 of the world’s leading international authorities in the field, January, 2019.

Shaw, A.L. et al., “The perspective of current and retired world class, elite and national athletes on the inclusion and eligibility of transgender athletes in elite sport,” Journal of Sports Sciences, Vol. 42, 2024, Issue 5.

Shin, Annys, “6 Key Takeaways from the Post-KFF Survey of Transgender Americans,” Washington Post, March 23, 2023. More than half (62 percent) of trans adults identify as “trans, gender non-conforming” or “trans, nonbinary,” while only 33 percent identify as a “trans man” or “trans woman.” Just 31 percent have used hormone treatments, HRT, or puberty-blocking hormones, and only 16 percent have undergone “gender-affirming” surgery or another surgical treatment to change their physical appearance.

Tambalis KD, Panagiotakos DB, Psarra G, et al. , “Physical fitness normative values for 6–18-year-old Greek boys and girls, using the empirical distribution and the lambda, mu, and sigma statistical method,” Eur J Sport Sci. 2016;16(6):736–46, cited in Hilton EN, Lundberg TR. Transgender Women in The Female Category of Sport: Perspectives on testosterone suppression and performance advantage. Sports Medicine. 2021;51: (PMID 33289906 and doi: 10.1007/s40279-020-01389-3).

Title IX Compliance Framework. 44 Fed. Reg. 71418 (1979).

Tucker, Ross, “Put before the world what you wish them to see, and they’ll never know any different,” The Female Category, March 28, 2024.

Turban JL, Loo SS, Almazan AN, Keuroghlian AS, “Factors Leading to “Detransition” Among Transgender and Gender Diverse People in the United States: A Mixed-Methods Analysis,” LGBT Health. 2021 May-Jun.

“Wheelchair Basketball at Risk of Paralympics Exclusion Over Classification Dispute,” The Telegraph, January 2020.

Women’s Forum Australia, “Harm of Men Claiming to Be Women.”

Women’s Sports Foundation.  “Girls and Boys Competing With and Against Each Other in Sports and Physical Activity Settings.”, August 14, 2019.

Women’s Sports Foundation, “50 Years of Title IX: We’re Not Done Yet,” May 4, 2022.

Women’s Sports Policy Working Group Endorses American Swimming Coaches Association’s Position and Encourages NCAA to Revise Its Transgender Guidelines (January 18, 2022)

Women’s Sports Policy Working Group, “Model Policy: Eligibility for the Female Category in Competitive Sport: Free Template for Sports Organizations,” February 12, 2024.

Women’s Sports Policy Working Group, “Our Position: Female Sports for Female Athletes,” July 30, 2023.

Women’s Sports Policy Working Group, “Pre-Puberty Male and Female Children Show Marked Differences in Sport Performance,” January 1, 2024.

Women’s Sports Policy Working Group, “Sport-by-Sport Listing of US & International Policies Governing Who Gets to Compete in the Female Category, with Grades: Gold, Silver, Substantially Flawed, Unfair, and Unclear,” 2024.

Women’s Sports Policy Working Group and Champion Women, “Access to Female Athletes’ Locker Rooms Should Be Restricted to Female Athletes,” January 2023.

Women’s Sports Policy Working Group and Champion Women Praise World Athletics’ New Rules Affirming the Women’s Sport Category, March 2023.

Women’s Sports Policy Working Group and Champion Women: Sport Regulators Must Restrict Female Sports Competition to Female Athletes and Provide Equitable, Inclusive Accommodations for Transgender Athletes Within the Women’s Sports Umbrella, October 18, 2022.

Women’s Sports Policy Working Group and Champion Women Submit Comments to Biden Admin: Girls’ and Women’s Sports are for Females. Period.

World Aquatics’ (formerly FINA) policy on transgender athletes.

Wright, Colin, “The True Meaning of Intersex,” Reality’s Last Stand, December 16, 2020.