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References

34 CFR § 106.41 – Athletics: Federal Regulations of the Office of the Department of Education

36 U.S. Code § 220501, the Ted Stevens Olympic and Amateur Sports Act.

Australia Human Rights Commission.  “Guidelines for the inclusion of transgender and gender diverse people in sport.” HumanRights.gov.au, June, 2019.

Blade, Linda, “Unsporting: How Trans Activism and Science Denial are Destroying Sport,” May 2021.

Boys vs. Women: Male High School Athletes vs. Female Olympians

Cantor, David., et. al., “Report on the AAU Campus Climate Survey on Sexual Assault and Misconduct,” Association of American Universities, 2019. “According to a recent survey of nearly 182,000 students, 26% of female college and graduate students report nonconsensual sexual contact by physical force or an inability to consent since enrolling in the school.”

Catley, Mark J. and Tomkinson, Grant R., “Normative health-related fitness values for children: analysis of 85,347 test results on 9–17-year-old Australians since 1985,” British Journal of Sports Medicine, Vol. 47, Issue 2 (January 2013).

Champion Women, “Discrimination Against Women in College Sports Is Getting Worse,” June 23, 2020.

Clark RV, Wald JA, Swerdloff RS, Wang C, Wu FCW, Bowers LD, Matsumoto AM 2019 Large divergence in testosterone concentrations between men and women: Frame of reference for elite athletes in sex- specific competition in sports, a narrative review. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 90:15-22.

“Classification System for Paralympic Track and Field “Open for Abuse,” The Guardian, March, 2017.

Coleman, D.L. “Sex, Sport, and Why Track and Field’s New Rules on Intersex Athletes Are Essential.” The New York Times, April 30, 2018.

Coleman, D.L, Joyner, M.J. and Lopiano, D.A. “Re-Affirming the Value of the Sports Exception to Title IX’s General Non-Discrimination Rule.” Duke Journal of Gender Law & Policy, March, 2020.

Coleman, D.L. “Sex, Sport, and Why Track and Field’s New Rules on Intersex Athletes Are Essential.” The New York Times, April 30, 2018.

Dansky, Kara, “The Abolition of Sex: How the “Transgender” Agenda Harms Women and Girls,” November 2021.

Eiberg S, Hasselstrom H, Grønfeldt V, et al., “Maximum oxygen uptake and objectively measured physical activity in Danish children 6–7 years of age: the Copenhagen school child intervention study,” Br J Sports Med. 2005;39(10):725–30, cited in Hilton EN, Lundberg TR. Transgender Women in The Female Category of Sport: Perspectives on testosterone suppression and performance advantage. Sports Medicine. 2021;51: (PMID 33289906 and doi: 10.1007/s40279-020-01389-3).

Frank Falkner et. al., Human Growth, “Boys demonstrate, on the average, greater strength than girls at all ages. Sex differences throughout childhood are consistent, although small,” 1978, P. 286.

Federal Register, Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Receiving Federal Financial Assistance: Sex-Related Eligibility Criteria for Male and Female Athletic Teams, April 13, 2023.

Gilligan, Andrew, The Sunday Times, “Unisex Changing Rooms Put Women in Danger,” September 2, 2018.

Giordano, Jerry, “The Boy-Girl Difference in Swimming Records,” Ricochet, June 25, 2022.

Handelsman DJ, Hirschberg AL, Bermon S. Circulating Testosterone as the Hormonal Basis of Sex Differences in Athletic Performance. Endocr Rev. 2018;39(5):803-29. Epub 2018/07/17.

Harper, J., O’Donnell, E., Sorouri Khorashad, B., et al.  “How does hormone transition in transgender women change body composition, muscle strength and haemoglobin?  Systematic review with a focus on the implications for sport participation.”  British Journal of Sports Medicine, March 1, 2021.

Hilton, Emma, “Dr. Emma Hilton reviews the science supporting the IOC decision to let male-born transgender athletes into female competition”.  FairPlayForWomen.com, July 14, 2019.   

Hilton, Emma and Lundberg, Tommy, “Transgender Women in The Female Category of Sport: Perspectives on testosterone suppression and performance advantage.” Sports Medicine. 2021;51: (PMID 33289906 and doi: 10.1007/s40279-020-01389-3).

Hoge, C., Pirruccio, K. et al., (2021)  “Rising Trends in Wrestling-associated Injuries in Females Presenting to US Emergency Departments.” Western J. of Emergency Medicine:  Integrating Emergency Care with Population Health.  Vol. 22, Issue 2.

Hooven, Carole, T: The Story of Testosterone, the Hormone That Dominates and Divides Us. New York: Henry Holt, 2021.

Jacoby, Kenny; Berkowitz, Steve; and Doug Caruso, USA Today, “Title IX: Falling Short at 50, Inside the numbers: Searchable data offers glimpse into how colleges short-change women’s sports” March, 2022.

Joyce, Helen, “Trans: When Ideology Meets Reality,” September, 2021.

Lopiano, Donna, “Why the NCAA’s Transgender Eligibility Policy is Outdated – And How It Can Be Fixed,” Forbes.com, January 5, 2022.

Lopiano, Donna and Mariah Burton Nelson, “A Fair and Inclusive Solution for Transgender Women in Sports,” Forbes.com, July 2022.

Nolan, Ian T.; Kuhner, Christopher J.; and Geolani W. Dy, “Demographic and Temporal Trends in Transgender Identities and Gender Affirming Surgery,” Translational Andrology and Urology, June 2019, pp. 184-190.

“Paralympics in Crisis As International and Australian Athletes Game the System,” ABC, April 2023.

Pike, J, Hilton, E. and L. Howe.  “Male and Female Athletic Performance:  Worlds Apart.” Quillette.com, December 11, 2021.

Post Wire Report, “Cycling bosses reviewing rules for transgender athletes after Austin Killips wins women’s race,” New York Post, May 4, 2023.

Schiappa, E.“The Transgender Exigency:  Defining Sex and Gender in the 21st Century”.  Routledge, December 8, 2021.   

Senefeld, J.W., Hunter, S.K., Coleman, D.L. and Joyner, M.J.“Transgender Swimmer in College AthleticsmedRxiv.org, January 1, 2022.  Note:  This article is a preprint and has not been certified by peer review. It reports new medical research that has yet to be evaluated and so should not be used to guide clinical practice.

“The Role of Testosterone in Athletic Performance.”  Experts statement by 41 of the world’s leading international authorities in the field, January, 2019.

Shin, Annys, “6 Key Takeaways from the Post-KFF Survey of Transgender Americans,” Washington Post, March 23, 2023. More than half (62 percent) of trans adults identify as “trans, gender non-conforming” or “trans, nonbinary,” while only 33 percent identify as a “trans man” or “trans woman.” Just 31 percent have used hormone treatments, HRT, or puberty-blocking hormones, and only 16 percent have undergone “gender-affirming” surgery or another surgical treatment to change their physical appearance.

Tambalis KD, Panagiotakos DB, Psarra G, et al. , “Physical fitness normative values for 6–18-year-old Greek boys and girls, using the empirical distribution and the lambda, mu, and sigma statistical method,” Eur J Sport Sci. 2016;16(6):736–46, cited in Hilton EN, Lundberg TR. Transgender Women in The Female Category of Sport: Perspectives on testosterone suppression and performance advantage. Sports Medicine. 2021;51: (PMID 33289906 and doi: 10.1007/s40279-020-01389-3).

Title IX Compliance Framework. 44 Fed. Reg. 71418 (1979).

Turban JL, Loo SS, Almazan AN, Keuroghlian AS, “Factors Leading to “Detransition” Among Transgender and Gender Diverse People in the United States: A Mixed-Methods Analysis,” LGBT Health. 2021 May-Jun.

“Wheelchair Basketball at Risk of Paralympics Exclusion Over Classification Dispute,” The Telegraph, January 2020.

Women’s Sports Foundation.  “Girls and Boys Competing With and Against Each Other in Sports and Physical Activity Settings.”  WomensSportsFoundation.org, August 14, 2019.

Women’s Sports Foundation, “50 Years of Title IX: We’re Not Done Yet,” May 4, 2022.

Women’s Sports Policy Working Group and Champion Women, “Access to Female Athletes’ Locker Rooms Should Be Restricted to Female Athletes,” January 2023.

Women’s Sports Policy Working Group and Champion Women Praise World Athletics’ New Rules Affirming the Women’s Sport Category, March 2023.

Women’s Sports Policy Working Group and Champion Women: Sport Regulators Must Restrict Female Sports Competition to Female Athletes and Provide Equitable, Inclusive Accommodations for Transgender Athletes Within the Women’s Sports Umbrella, October 18, 2022.

Women’s Sports Policy Working Group and Champion Women Submit Comments to Biden Admin: Girls’ and Women’s Sports are for Females. Period.

Women’s Sports Policy Working Group Endorses American Swimming Coaches Association’s Position and Encourages NCAA to Revise Its Transgender Guidelines (January 18, 2022)

World Aquatics’ (formerly FINA) policy on transgender athletes.