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Q4. Couldn’t We Have Eligibility Criteria For The Two Divisions (Male And Female) Based On Some Different (Other Than Sex) Physical Criteria?

A4. No. There are no other physical criteria that could be used to determine eligibility that would similarly assure sex equality in competitive sport. Based on those different criteria, e.g., matching leg length, wing span, height, weight, etc., males as a group would always outperform females as a group because their biological sex differences–primarily testosterone levels in the male range from the onset of puberty and throughout the athletic career. Team USA stars Missy Franklin and Ryan Lochte illustrate this point well. They are both multiple Olympic and world champions in swimming. Both had first class training, coaching, and support. Both are 6’2” with reported 6’4” wingspans. Both held the world record in the 200 meters backstroke. But had they raced each other on their best days, Lochte would have finished about a half lap ahead of Franklin. In 2012, the year Franklin set her world record, her time of 2:04.06 would have placed her in a tie for 50th in the U.S. men’s Olympic Trials.