A25. Yes. As our answer to Question 15 details, several peer-reviewed studies, including one based on data from the U.S. military, have confirmed that males who identify as transgender retain their male sex-linked advantages even after a year on gender-affirming hormones. This is especially the case for sports and events that are not endurance-based. Because of these retained advantages, USA Powerlifting, World Rugby, and World Athletics (track and field) have recently concluded that it isn’t possible to fairly and safely include males who identify as transgender in women’s competition. Other international sports federations have rejected the International Olympic Committee’s 2015 guidance suggesting that males who identify as transgender be included in women’s competition so long as they reduce their testosterone levels to the bottom of the male range (under 10 nmol/L). Many federations have reduced the required testosterone level to within the female range and/or precluded post-puberty transgender athletes from competing in the female category.