A20. Doping is the exogenous use – the taking – of prohibited performance enhancing drugs (PEDs), including testosterone and other body building androgens. These are among the substances that propelled the East German women to victory in the Olympic Games and World Championships in the 1970s and 1980s, costing clean American women and Team USA (and others) to lose out on medals they would otherwise have won. Some American athletes have also doped with androgens, but not in the systematic and state-sponsored way as the East Germans, and more recently the Russians. Males who identify as transgender who want to be included in girls’/women’s competitive sports events are not doping; that is, they aren’t taking PEDs to compete. But their natural testosterone levels build strength, speed, and power in the same way that doping does; and because their natural levels are much higher than even those of doped female athletes, the effect on competition is the same or more overwhelming for the clean (common term for non-doping) females in the field.