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Q2. What Are Sex Differences?

A2. Sex differences are anatomical and physiological differences that are determined by or related to biological sex. Males on the one hand and females on the other have distinct genetic and chromosomal, gonadal, endocrinological, and phenotypic (external secondary) characteristics. The field of sex differences in biomedical research specifically studies these distinctions, which have implications not only for reproduction and sport, but also for immunology and cardiovascular health, among other things. As the Institute of Medicine has explained, “basic biochemical differences” exist between males and females even “at the cellular and molecular levels.”