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Q11. Don’t Elite Female Athletes Have High Testosterone Levels—Isn’t This What Makes Them Good Athletes?

A11. No. Elite female athletes generally have testosterone levels within the normal female range, i.e., below 1.68 nmol/L. If they have the condition known as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), they may have testosterone levels up to 3 nmol/L, or, in rare instances, up to 4.8 nmol/L. This is why some sports organizations, wishing to be inclusive of all possible healthy biological females, set their maximum testosterone level at 5 nmol/L.